Hydrology is a branch of geography that studies the properties of water on Earth, especially its movement in relation to land.

When Rivers Become Ice Roads

Caitlin Dempsey

During the cold winter months, parts of Canada's Mackenzie River become a ice road that trucks up to 22,000 pounds can navigate.

A salt marsh pond in Plum Island, MA (on the left), alongside a tidal creek (on the right).

How Sea Level Rise Will Affect Salt Marshes

Mark Altaweel

Researchers have calculated that about 90 percent of salt marshes are under threat from rising sea levels predicted to occur by the year 2100.

A view of a surge flow on a creek with sand dunes and mountains in the background.

Surge Flows: A Rare River Phenomenon

Caitlin Dempsey

Surge flows are a rare phenomenon where shallow waters, sand or sediment, and steep topography combine to create waves in rivers.

A diagram showing the different order of recursive islands.

Third Order Islands

Caitlin Dempsey

Islands with lakes or ponds that contain smaller islands within them are called recursive islands.

Coastal wetlands at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts. Photo: Kelly Fike/USFWS

Blue Carbon Explained

Caitlin Dempsey

Blue carbon is the carbon captured and stored by the world's oceanic and coastal ecosystems.

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