Hydrology is a branch of geography that studies the properties of water on Earth, especially its movement in relation to land.

A diagram showing the different order of recursive islands.

Third Order Islands

Caitlin Dempsey

Islands with lakes or ponds that contain smaller islands within them are called recursive islands.

Coastal wetlands at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts. Photo: Kelly Fike/USFWS

Blue Carbon Explained

Caitlin Dempsey

Blue carbon is the carbon captured and stored by the world's oceanic and coastal ecosystems.

The top satellite image shows the snowpack in the Sierras in California in 2022. The bottom satellite image shows the snowpack in the Sierras in 2023.

Snowmelt is Starting in California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains

Caitlin Dempsey

Due to colder weather and more strong atmospheric rivers, the 2023 Sierra Nevada snowpack levels in California are significantly above average.

A shaded relief map of the Central Valley in California showing the location of Tulare Lake.

California’s Wet Winter Brought Back an Ancient Lake

Caitlin Dempsey

After an exceptionally wet California winter, the once-vanished Tulare Lake reemerges, reclaiming a portion of its historic expanse.

Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park. Photo: NPS, public domain.

Why Salt Flats Have a Honeycomb Pattern

Caitlin Dempsey

Recently published research explains the scientific reason behind the honeycomb shapes found in salt flats.

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