Bayesian is a belief network that is a probabilistic graphical model that deals with reasoning under uncertainty (e.g. determining the probabilities of a disease based on the symptoms).
Bayesian belief networks (BBN) and GIS can be used as decision aides to give an idea of probability of events unfolding.
A method to measure uneven distribution of landscape or population features in a given space is stratified heterogeneity.
With the utility of R, many popular statistical procedures and more advanced analyses, including a variety of simulation applications, can be applied directly within GIS tools such as QGIS.
This article takes a look at methods which demonstrate the wide and growing field of crime prevention utilizing spatial and GIS approaches.