El Niño

Image showing the change in the jet stream over the western U.S. during El Niño.

How El Niño and La Niña Affect Rain in the United States

Julian Marks

El Niño and La Niña are weather patterns that frequently have a considerable impact on the western and southwestern United States.

Water vapor imagery of the eastern Pacific Ocean from the GOES 11 satellite, showing a large atmospheric river aimed across California. Image from United States Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey. (Captured December 20, 2010).

Atmospheric Rivers

Caitlin Dempsey

Atmospheric Rivers are trails of moisture in the atmosphere composed of condensed water vapor.

Changes in Cambodia from Sentinel-1A readings at 20 m resolution, acquired every 12 days from March 2015 to March 2016. Dark blue represents water surfaces, light blue to magenta represents agriculture (bare soil and cultivated fields), light to dark green represents forests, and white indicates settlements. In particular, the varying shades of magenta indicate rice sowing and transplanting between mid-September and the end of October. Source: contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2015–16)/sarmap/RIICE project/OpenStreetMap contributors (background map).

Using Remote Sensing to Map Rice Paddy Drop in the Mekong Delta

Elizabeth Borneman

Satellites including Europe’s Sentinel-1A can now track the rise and fall of different agricultural products around the world. The satellite’s imagery showed that rice production in the Mekong Delta has decreased in the past year.