geography terminology

A polynya that has formed in an embayment where the Venable Ice Shelf meets Farwell Island in Antartica. Photo: John Sonntag/NASA, public domain.

Polynyas: Natural Openings in Polar Ice

Caitlin Dempsey

Explore the geography of polynyas, unique open water areas in polar ice, and learn about their formation, ecological impact, and role in climate dynamics.

A compass rose showing just the cardinal points of north, south, east, and west.

Cardinal Directions and Ordinal Directions

Caitlin Dempsey

Learn about cardinal, ordinal, and secondary intercardinal directions.