Researchers are studying the link between language and genetics in a recent series of collaborations between European universities. Academics from the University of York, the University of Ferrara, the University of Modena, and the University of Reggio Emilia are working together to strengthen the link between genetics and the languages people speak.
The studies have shown that linguistic diversity is also a determining factor of genetic diversity. Although European languages are currently the only ones under the radar, the researchers hope to add additional languages around the world in the future. The difference in languages that people speak is a greater predictor of genetic diversity than the physical geography of languages.
Researchers study the linguistic history of populations; for instance French, Spanish and Italian have very close linguistic ties to one another, while languages like Russian are much different. These linguistic histories and differences can determine the genetic differences between populations of people.
There are some unique cases that deviate from this trend. For instance, Hungarian is a language without close ties to the language groups around it. Hungarian was likely brought in by a conquering people and was picked up by locals, meaning it isn’t quite the genetic marker other languages are. This is an important distinction in this area of study.
This research puts into question the diffusion of language across populations of people. Rather than a language slowly moving and changing from people group to people group, these languages actually travel with a specific group as it migrates. The genetics of that particular group are then spread as well.
Geneticists could, in the future, be able to observe the unique genetic differences of a group of people based on the language they speak rather than the geographic area they come from. This genetic research has implications for health as well as tracking future linguistic trends in the population.
Longobardi, G., Ghirotto, S., Guardiano, C., Tassi, F., Benazzo, A., Ceolin, A., & Barbujani, G. (2015). Across language families: Genome diversity mirrors linguistic variation within Europe. American journal of physical anthropology, 157(4), 630-640. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22758