Introduction to Wildlife Corridors

Elizabeth Borneman


Wildlife corridors are also known as habitat corridors or green corridors. Wildlife corridors are also known as ecoducts and ecopassages.

These wildlife areas are designed to keep local migratory animal species from the encroaching human populations in areas of high interaction between the two. These green corridors are also designed to keep animals out of danger of highways, busy roads, and other areas where their traditional migratory patterns intersect with potential dangerous manmade places.

Wildlife habits and migration are studied in order to determine where the best place for wildlife corridors to be. The migratory habits of animals such as deer, elk, moose, bears, mountain goats, lizards, tortoises, sheep, bees, and more are assisted by the wildlife corridors.

Wildlife corridors allow these animals to pass over or under roads and other manmade obstacles to keep them safe and their territory somewhat intact.

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A female wolf cross a road in Yellowstone National Park while a car waits.
A female wolf crosses a road in Yellowstone National Park while a car waits. NPS/Jim Peaco, Public domain.

Types of Wildlife Corridors

There are two types of corridors, although many different kinds of ways in which these corridors can be built.

Wildlife corridor for herpetofauna.
Wildlife corridor for herpetofauna which helps migrating reptiles and amphibians avoid unfriendly fields and roads. Source: NRCS, public domain.

There are continuous corridors, which are large, unbroken strips of green corridor that lead to another habitat, and stepping stone corridors, which are small patches of habitat that are connected by smaller green corridors. Migration can therefore be conducted despite the kinds of human activity in the area.

Corridors can be underpasses or bridges; from the few studies that have been done, animals have been shown to prefer underpasses as it keeps them unseen by the chaos of traffic or humans above.

Aerial image of a wildlife crossing in The Netherlands.
This wildlife crossing in the Netherlands provides a secure natural passage for animals to migrate between conservancy areas that are separated by a roadway. © Maarten Zeehandelaar/

Benefits of Wildlife Corridors

While much research goes into the study of animal migration and which animals will benefit the most from these green corridors, not much is known about the results of these corridors when it comes to preserving the natural lifestyles and habitats of local species.

The positive benefits of wildlife corridors are keeping animals off busy roads, where they can endanger themselves and drivers when attempting to cross.

A wildlife underpass near Olsztyn, Poland.
A wildlife underpass near Olsztyn, Poland. © Fotokon/

Allowing the safe passage of animals along wildlife coworkers diminishes the human impact on local species as well as preserves their traditional habitat, making sure populations of animals are able to expand and increase genetic diversity.

Wildlife corridors can also assist in re-establishing animal populations that are in danger or diminished because of human or natural events. Wildlife corridors also help mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation caused by the expanse of human development.

Wildlife corridors also help keep wild animals out of urban areas, allowing for the safe coexistence of animals and humans. Allowing people and animals to go about their lives around each other keeps the space sacred for both parties.

These corridors also give scientists the chance to research migratory patterns and potentially better ways to treat the wild animals in the midst of urban centers.

Concerns About Wildlife Corridors

The negative aspects of wildlife corridors are the lack of funding because of the lack of research into the actual benefits of these corridors. Many organizations involved in spreading the world about wildlife corridors find it hard to generate a response.

Wildlife corridors often need to be built towards a specific animal population which can decrease their efficiency in the grand scheme of conservation. A big horned sheep, for instance, might not cross a wildlife corridor built for that area’s bear population even though its migratory habits are similar.

As many wildlife corridors intersect busy roads or places where a lot of humans are, many species shy away from the area. Corridors also need to be built very wide to maintain the wilderness effect, but this land is very hard to get approved for usage as a wildlife corridor in some cases.

A Yosemite toad peers through mesh fence installed alongside a road to reduce negative vehicle impacts and direct amphibians to safe passageways.
A Yosemite toad peers through mesh fence installed alongside a road to reduce negative vehicle impacts and direct amphibians to safe passageways. Photo: Cheryl Brehme, USGS Western Ecological Research Center. Public domain.

They also must maintain the same habitat as the areas the animals call home, or crossing will seem unnatural to the animals using the corridor. Unfortunately these corridors often allow for the safe passage of invasive species of flora and fauna which can drastically change the ecosystem of a nearby area that was once inaccessible.

More study needs to be conducted on specific animal migratory patterns as well as the overall benefits of these corridors in order to know if they are truly worth the cost of building and maintaining. In the meantime the existing corridors should be taken care of and used as stepping stones for the future of localized animal conservation.

One organization that is campaigning for the future of wildlife conservation is the Florida Wildlife Corridor. Activists for the Florida Wildlife Corridor are on a journey to raise awareness for the potential for a state-wide corridor spanning parts of the American South.

Their work has already allowed for corridors to be built in the Florida Everglades and they hope to continue their work for animal species around Florida, Georgia, Alabama and elsewhere in the region.

World’s Longest Wildlife Corridor

The Netherlands is one country that has dedicated resources towards building wildlife corridors. There are about 600 ecoducts in the country. The Netherlands also lays claim to the longest wildlife corridor in the world.

Built in 2006, Natuurbrug Zanderij Crailoo is 800 meters long and 50 meters wide, the wildlife corridor provides safe passage to animals across the N524 roadway.

References and Further Reading

Brehme, C. (2021, May 10). Animal crossing: New research guides efforts to protect California’s amphibians and reptiles from road danger. | Science for a changing world.

Creating a wildlife corridor – Lower Rio Grande Valley – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2015, February 3). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Kaushik. Amusing Planet. Wildlife Crossings Around the World. 10 July 2012.

Wildlife corridors. (2019, October 31). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Florida Wildlife Corridor. The Journey Continues. 2014.

Rabinowitz, Alan (April 2010). “A range-wide model of landscape connectivity and conservation for the jaguar, Panthera onca”. Biological Conservation 143 (4): 939–945.doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.01.002.


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About the author
Elizabeth Borneman
My name is Elizabeth Borneman and I am a freelance writer, reader, and coffee drinker. I live on a small island in Alaska, which gives me plenty of time to fish, hike, kayak, and be inspired by nature. I enjoy writing about the natural world and find lots of ways to flex my creative muscles on the beach, in the forest, or down at the local coffee shop.