Sub-branches of Human Geography

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Human geography focuses on the role that human play in the world.  Human geography focuses on understand processes about human populations, settlements, economics, transportation, recreation and tourism, religion, politics, social and cultural traditions, human migration, agriculture, and urbanization.

Economic Geography

Geographers under this branch normally study the manner in which products are usually produced and consequently distributed in their respective niche markets. In addition to this, they also study the way in which wealth is distributed in various regions over the planet. In general, the structures which control and influence the conditions of the economy are usually dissected microscopically here.

Flow map of the increased number of tourists around Mount Everest between 1980 and 2000.

Flow map of the increased number of tourists around Mount Everest between 1980 and 2000.

Population Geography

In most cases, scholars usually equate population geography to demography even though this is usually not the case. This is mainly owing to the reason that population geography is deeper than the study of the patterns of a group of people with regards to birth, marriage & death as is the case with demography. Geographers who are involved in this discipline normally study the population of regions in much more detail. This means that they normally look at the manner in which the population of a given area is distributed, how the people there migrate, and the rate as well as pattern of the population growth.

Population Density in the Arab League.  Source: World Geography Today (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2000)

Population Density in the Arab League. Source: World Geography Today (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2000)

Medical Geography

In this branch, geographers normally study the patterns in which particular diseases spread. This means that pandemics & epidemics are usually studied here as well as common illnesses, general health care and death as well.


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Map depicting the global spread of Avian Influenza through both animal and human populations (2003-2005).

Map depicting the global spread of Avian Influenza through both animal and human populations (2003-2005).

Military Geography 

Geographers who practice this discipline normally conduct their research and studies within the military fraternity. They mainly study the manner in which military facilities are distributed as well as the best ways in which the troops can be able to utilize the facilities that they have at their disposal. In addition to this, the branch also covers the techniques that can be implemented in developing solutions to the common problems that military units commonly face.

Political Geography 

This is a very interesting branch of geography that is involved in the investigation of every aspect of politics. This is with regards to the boundaries of a country, the states it has and the development strategies that it has in place. In addition, there are other details which are also covered such as: Voting, sub-divisions, diplomacy and international organizations.

Transportation Geography 

Geographers who are involved in this branch of geography are usually involved in the research of the available networks for transportation. This includes both the public ones as well as private ones. Once the networks have been studied, ways in which to maximize their use in the movement of people and products can be explored.

Accessibility to jobs by public transit within 40 minutes during PM Peak (4:15 PM) in 2005, Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (USA).

Accessibility to jobs by public transit within 40 minutes during PM Peak (4:15 PM) in 2005, Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (USA).

Urban Geography 

With the development of urban cities worldwide, the branch of urban geography came into play since it enables researchers to study these trends much more effectively. In addition to this, these geographers are able to investigate potential locations that are suitable fore development for the tiniest of villages to sprout into the desired huge cities.