Physical geography is one of the two primary branches of geography. Listed here are sub-branches or sub-fields of physical geography.
These sub-fields of physical geography study processes and patterns in the natural environment ranging from the oceans to physical land to the atmosphere.
Animals and plants on Earth are usually distributed in specific patterns and biogeography is the discipline that is involved in this study. Biogeography studies the distribution of biological species and the geographic patterns that are a result.
This field can be further broken down into biogeography related to islands, paleobiogeography, phylogeography, zoogeography, and phytogeography.
Geographers in this branch of geography are usually concerned with the investigation of the weather patterns of the Earth and the way in which they affect the climate as a result. Activities that are taking place within the atmosphere of the Earth are also studied in this discipline.
Climatologists study the climate as it is made up by weather conditions throughout history. This area of study can involve local climate science as well as global, or macro, climate changes. Climatologists can choose to study specific periods of time in history to focus their research or choose a location to further develop their research.
Coastal geography focuses on areas where water meets land. Coastal weathering, or the impact of the ocean on these coastal environments, involves very unique processes.
This field involves the study of wave action, sediment movement, erosion, as well as how humans have altered coastlines.
Environmental geography focuses on studying the interactions and impacts between humans and the natural world. Environmental geography links aspects of human geography with physical geography.
Geomorphology is the study of Earth’s landforms, terrain, and the processes that guide these changes. The landforms on Earth usually develop in interesting ways, stemming from tectonic movement and climatic influences. There are numerous processes that normally lead to the eventual vanishing of these landforms.
For instance, erosion is a major part of this field, as it has been discovered to be a major factor that influences the disappearance of landforms.
Geomorphology seeks to understand past landforms and what happened to them in order to make predictions about the future through field observations, physical experiments, and modeling.
Glaciology is a field of geography that studies ice sheets and glaciers on Earth’s surface.
Glaciers are studied by how they impact a landscape as they move or melt, as well as how ice sheets and their makeup impact climate studies. Glacial geology and snow hydrology are two subsets of glaciology.
The study of hydraulics concerns the amount of quality of water and its movement across the Earth’s surfaces.
The most basic understanding of hydrology comes down to what we know as the water cycle, or the hydrological cycle.
Hydrology can be split into researchers who study rivers (the study of rivers is called potamology), lakes, aquifers, and glaciers (although glaciology as a field goes much more in-depth).
Landscape ecology blends ecology and geography to show ecological processes.
Researchers in this field could use physical geographic evidence showing the flow of energy, material, and people to indicate changes in ecological landscapes.
Lithology is the study of the physical composition of rocks. Using visual methods including core samples and microscopes, lithologists can determine the color, texture, grain, and composition of rock samples.
Lithology allows researchers to map and correlate rock types between different locations.
Meteorology studies the atmosphere of the Earth as it relates to weather processes and predicting future weather patterns.
Meteorology concerns observable weather events.
The study of the world’s oceans and seas is known as oceanography. Oceanographers study marine biology and organisms, currents, waves, and the movement of water, as well as the physical makeup of sea floors.
Oceanographers seek to blend these complex areas of study into the field for a comprehensive view of the world’s oceans.
Orology is the study of mountains and their formation. Sub-branches of this field of study include the human impacts on mountainous landscapes as well as elevation-based mountain studies.
Climate studies regarding mountains, such as the rain shadow effect, are part of this field.
Palaeogeography studies material that has been preserved in the soil record, or stratigraphic record, of Earth’s crust. This allows scientists to discover when certain species are thought to have lived.
Additionally, scientists can determine the past position of Earth’s continents based on palaeographic finds.
This is a specific field of study that concerns the Quaternary period, or the last 2.6 million years of Earth’s history.
The Quaternary period has two epochs. The Pleistocene which last from 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago and the Holocene which spans from the end of the Pleistocene to the present.
Scientists use data recovered from this period to reconstruct estimations of past environmental conditions to show past climatic and environmental conditions that may have existed.
Soil geography is often seen as a sub-field of geomorphology. Soil geography studies the distribution of soil across a section of terrain.
This field deals with the makeup of soil as well as soil classification and how soil relates to geomorphology, climate, biological life, and mineral content.
Water Resources Geography
This is a branch of geography that normally deals with the study of how water resources are generally managed in a particular region.
Geographers who are involved in this discipline normally look at the manner in which water is collected, distributed and, lastly, used in various places across the planet.
In addition to this, systems developed by humans that are meant to aid the entire process are also studied so that they can consequently be enhanced for maximum efficiency.
Related Resources on Geography
This article was co-written with Caitlin Dempsey.