Irrigation is important, especially when you live in the desert. Irrigation methods have evolved over the centuries, but certain practices have remained tried and true in the harshest of climates.
Irrigation methods, no matter where you are in the world, can make the difference between having enough food to last for the rest of the year or having to go without necessary nutrition.
Taking Pictures of Agricultural Patterns from the International Space Station
Astronauts living in the International Space Station are part of an important effort to document irrigation methods around the world and find out how effective they are.
Astronauts provided high definition photographs of a region of Libya near to a town called Al Jawf. The region is highly isolated; you would have to go more than 560 miles to get to the nearest major city. Agriculture in this region is, therefore, highly essential to the people and animals living in Al Jawf.
The photo captures different agricultural patterns in the desert, each of which represents a unique irrigation method.
The honeycombed center is the remnants of the first planned agricultural efforts in the 1970s, while the larger circles were later dug as a pivot irrigation system designed to conserve as much water as possible. Another smaller grid irrigation system is also visible as an older but still viable method of irrigating crops. (Related: What are Qanats?)
A nearby oasis gives the residents of Al Jawf a break from the desert, all thanks to the largest known fossil water aquifer in the world. This aquifer is known as the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer. This underground water source is all that is left of the Sahara Desert when it was a lush, green jungle.
Unfortunately, the aquifer is a non-renewable resource, as the region around Al Jawf only gets a tenth of an inch of rain every year. Despite the water shortage, the residents of Al Jawf are doing all they can to conserve as much water as possible.
Sharq El Owainat Crop Circles
This view of circular farming patterns in Sharq El Owainat, southwest Egypt, was taken by an astronaut onboard the International Space Station. The crop circles are the result of center-pivot irrigation.
The Sahara Desert’s distant agricultural outpost is around 290 kilometers (180 miles) from the nearest city and 210 kilometers (130 miles) from the Toshka lakes.
These crop circles are able to exists thanks to the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System found buried beneath the sand. For Egyptians who live outside of the reaches of the Nile River, the aquifer is their only supply of water.
Land in parts of Egypt outside the region of the Nile Delta are considered “hyper-arid” – with an average yearly precipitation of 0 millimeters, more than 95% of Egypt is inhospitable desert.
Hansen, K. (2017, March 11). Cultivating Egypt’s desert. NASA Earth Observatory. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/89820/cultivating-egypts-desert
Hollier, A., & Wilkinson, J. (2017, January 2). Al Jawf, eastern Libya. NASA Earth Observatory. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/89341/al-jawf-eastern-libya
Hollier, A. (2017, September 18). Crop circles in Sharq el Owainat. NASA Earth Observatory. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/90937/crop-circles-in-sharq-el-owainat